In looking through historical documents, there is a striking resemblance between one of the last letters that Llywelyn ap Gruffydd wrote to Edward I, a month before his death, and the famous speech by Patrick Henry. From Llywelyn:
We fight because we are forced to fight, for we, and all Wales, are oppressed, subjugated, despoiled, reduced to servitude by the royal officers and bailiffs so that we feel, and have often so protested to the King, that we are left without any remedy . . ..
Compare it to Patrick Henry’s speech to the Virginia Assembly:
Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the foot of the throne. In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope . . .
Welsh rulers fought the English/Norman rule from 1066 to 1282, but even after the Welsh conquest by Edward I, other men stepped up to foment rebellion, some with more success than others.
One was Madog ap Llywelyn (1294-95): Frustrated by high taxes, forced levies for Edward’s wars, misuse of power by his officers (sound familiar?), Madog rose to lead an organized rebellion at Michelmas in 1294, just as Edward was preparing to cross the English Channel for a continental campaign. He immediately abandoned that plan and turned his attention to Wales. http://www.medievalists.net/files/08100401.pdf
Madog himself wasn’t particularly noble in his ideals–he was a distant relative of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd but who had not been an ally. Back in 1256 the Prince of Wales dispossessed his family of their lands, they fled to England and to Edward. Upon Llywelyn ap Gruffydd’s death, Madog expected a return to his fortunes, expectations which failed to materialize. Madog’s forces overran Caernarfon and occupied the castle. Other castles across Wales were besieged and many towns put to the flame, including Caerfphilly, Harlech, and Conwy. http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Madog_ap_Llywelyn Ultimately, of course, Edward’s armies defeated Madog’s and captured him.
A second was Llywelyn Bren in 1316 who rebelled against Edward II, somewhat despite himself. His real argument was with Sir Payn Turberville whom Edward had appointed to rule Glamorgan after the death of its Earl. As always seemed to be the case with these royal, English appointments, he was tyrannical and vicious. Llywelyn made some statement to that effect, which Turberville reported to Edward II, who then called Llywelyn to account. Instead of allowing Edward to hang him, he fled and fomented rebellion, although he ultimately surrendered rather than have the full weight of the Marche brought down on his countrymen’s head. This page has a detailed description of what went on: http://edwardthesecond.blogspot.com/2010/01/uprising-in-south-wales-1316.html
Ultimately, Hugh Despenser had Llywelyn removed from the Tower of London and murdered.
Then, of course, there’s Owain Glyndwr (Glendower) who gets his own post 🙂 http://www.sarahwoodbury.com/owain-glyndwr/