Conwy Castle was begun in March 1283 as part of Edward’s Iron Ring of Castles and mostly completed by 1289 to the tune of 15,000 pounds (over ten million today)
The previous castle in the area was at Deganwy, which is visible from Conwy’s walls but was destroyed during the wars with King Henry and not rebuilt
Edward built the castle on the western side of the Conwy River as a foothold in the heart of Gwynedd and controls and important river crossing
To build castle and town Edward destroyed the monastery of Aberconwy, patronized by the Welsh princes as well as Llywelyn’s palace
Like many of the iron ring, consisted of castle and planted town of English settlers, all surrounded by massive stone walls
8 great towers in a relatively compact castle, also, like the others, designed by James of St. George
One wall of Llywelyn’s great hall was incorporated into the town wall and you can still see the window seats in it today
As we talked about in the video on the royal llys, many of the palaces were either destroyed outright like at Beaumaris, Harlech, and Caernarfon, or dismantled first, with pieces being incorporated within the castles themselves
I don’t think it’s a stretch to view that as not merely a matter of recycling
Castle was the administrative center of the area
No Welsh allowed in the town after dark
One family member was required to attend the weekly market, with the effect of putting a stop to the nomadic herding lifestyle of a significant percentage of the populace.
Welsh evicted from land outside the townReplacement of Welsh law with English law—English system of sheriffs, courts, coroners—all officials were English/Norman
In essence, Conwy not only had a practical purpose of standing as a deterrent to rebellion but was a very real symbol of English dominance. That symbol was taken to its logical conclusion with the building of Caernarfon Castle, which we’ll talk about next week.